Summary of findings
- The scale of atrocities and the targeting of civilians was not anticipated and caught the population by surprise.
- Multiple state and non-state combatants are operating, often in coordination, throughout the Tigray
- These include the ENDF, Eritrean state military, regional military forces from Ahmara and Tigray
states, armed ethnic militia, and opportunistic bandits
- Accounts from interviewed refugees suggest targeting of medical facilities.
- Human rights violations and atrocities were perpetrated based on ethnic targeting.
- Looting and theft, both by military forces and opportunistic thieves, appears to have been widespread.
- The threat of forced recruitment has been a motivating factor for refugees to flee.
- Displaced people were targeted and interrogated on their route to find safety, first in their home areas, and then along dangerous routes to the Sudan border.
- Refugee flows appear to include individuals from all sectors of society, including all age groups and all
- income groups.
- Most refugees have been separated from family as a result of displacement and do not yet have access to
- family tracing.
- Conditions in both Hamdayet and Um Rakuba settlement sites were dire at the time of interviews, with inadequate food, unsafe water (especially in Hamdayet), and inadequate shelter.
- Multiple humanitarian organizations are on the ground attempting to enhance infrastructure and services under crisis conditions, but the conditions inside Sudan and the inaccessibility of the areas where refugees
- are concentrated make such service provision extremely challenging.
- Refugees report significant material and moral support from the local host communities, and report that they feel safe and welcomed by the Sudanese people.